Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 64, 3, Karstologia, 35, Cave and Karst Science, 21, 3, University course code: 3KR Year of study: 1. Semester: 2. Course principal: prof. Philippe Audra. ECTS: 6. Workload: Lectures: 50 hours Exercises: 10 hours Seminar: 30 hours Individual work: 90 hours. Course type: elective. Languages: english. Speleogenesis This course is part of the programme: Karstology Third Level Objectives and competences Equivalent to karst surface is karst underground where karst caves are essential. Bases of a karst cave origin and evolution Processes of origin and evolution of an epiphreatic cave Underground forms due to epiphreatic processes erosion and deposition Structural conditions necessary for the origin of a hypogene cave Hypogene speleogenetic processes phreatic zone, corrosion of condensation water Groundplan of hypogene caves Typology of hypogene caves.
Ford, D. Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology. Palmer, A.
Cave geology. Cave Books, Dayton, Ohio.
The author showed that one of the strong controlling factors was the drying power of the air caused by turning lights on and off in various reflecting positions. The mean air temperature was This is overall about 0. The highest cave-visitor counts correspond with highest cave air temperature values Fig. Furthermore, in May and June , all stations on the tour route showed cave air temperatures rising in parallel with the increase of visitors visitors in May and visitors in June and increase of outside air temperature.
In , the cave air temperature did not decrease until October. Note that in September the outside air temperature decreased, yet, inside the cave, air temperatures remained steady near the summertime high Fig.
Cave visitation remained fairly strong in September. This is further evidence that cave visitation is influencing cave air temperature. This difference demonstrates that the outside winter air, which enters the cave primarily through the natural entrance shaft Fig. Future measurements of cave rock temperature on and off the tour routes could help to determine the influence of geothermal flux on cave air temperature. The two caves are too distant and with sufficiently different geomorphology and geology that simple comparison of cave air temperatures is not meaningful.
Deeper studies would be needed to understand why air temperatures at the Timpanogos Caves are so much lower than those at Lehman Caves. In the example of the Lehman Caves, we cannot exclude the fact that the cave is developed in marbles metamorphosed limestone , which have excellent thermal conductivity and can absorb large amounts of heat, even more than limestone Walker et al. Elevated cave air temperatures at the Lehman Caves can point to accumulated heat in the marble resulting from modern-day tourism and, also, from previous years when the numbers of visitors were not limited as it is today.
After the year , when the Lehman Caves received its maximum of 50, visitors, the number of park visitors strongly increased , in , but, by , the number of cave visits stabilized at around 33, per year Fig. The reduction is due to the Park limiting tours and not to any decrease in demand. An online reservation system for cave tours started in There are generally 10—15 tours daily in summer, with no more than 20 people per tour. Cave tours fill nearly every day in summer. Visitor numbers for the period October to September Fig.
Visitation to the Lehman Caves was highest in July in and in Monthly visitation to the Caves declined drastically in winter, ranging from to The fundamental principles for development of a show cave are protection of the environment and safety of the visitors Cigna Electric wiring should be zoned to enable lighting only where visitors are located Cigna and Forti Relation between numbers of cave and park visitors and GBNP tourism activities for the period — For the Lehman Caves, there are four key issues related to the use of the cave for tourism, which are as follows: 1 limiting numbers of visitors and the extents of their visits, 2 cave micro-climate and biological monitoring, 3 lampenflora growth around cave lights, and 4 anthropogenic remains in the cave, most notably lint.
Visitor numbers 1 at the Lehman Caves are already limited due to environmental protection and staffing considerations. The effects of visitation on cave formation, especially growth of speleothems, have not been investigated and are worthy of study. For in situ monitoring of visitor impacts on cave environment, permanent meteorological stations should be placed in the cave. It is necessary to monitor continuously at least the most sensitive cave parameters 2 in order to mitigate a situation as soon as problems appear. In addition to the usual parameters—air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, water temperature, airflow in and out of the cave—radon and cave air CO 2 concentrations have been shown to be important for micro-climatic monitoring Fernandez-Cortes et al.
Karst environments, unique from other environments, require their own disturbance indices. Increasingly, karst resources are being disturbed by numerous processes related to social, physical, and economic factors. Conservation of speleological heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic studies inside the caves Mulec, and, also, of the external environments that surround them.
Donato et al.
Considering the Santana Cave Brazil , Santos Lobo presented tourist-carrying capacity as a dynamic tool, not just to limit impact but also to improve visitor experience. Earlier, Middaugh had cautioned that carrying capacity analysis is not merely the calculation of a number but rather involves the definition of a problem, the formulation of objectives to solve that problem, and the implementation of proper management to solve the problem. The majority of research on environmental impacts of tourism in China caves has been qualitative and descriptive in nature, with a lack of both case studies and theoretical development Zhong et al.
Lampenflora growth at the Lehman Caves 3 is another consideration. Such treatments could potentially be applied more often. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide might be tested as an alternative cleansing agent.
The entrance and middle sections of the cave were lighted in The last section Talus Room was lighted in Stark After the lights were emplaced, the slow colonization by plants lampenflora and microscopic animals from spores began. Plants living in the cave are dispersed by spores probably brought in by water and moved around on the feet of tourists and trogloxenes. In the period to , the largest plant to invade the cave and stay was a small fern Cystopteris fragilis var.
Fragilis Stark A lighting system for the cave that reduces algal growth is of course desirable. The fourth issue 4 addresses traces of human presence in the Lehman Caves mainly in the form of lint, which covers speleothems and cave routes. Lint is introduced to the cave environment by the approximately 33, people who enter the cave each year.
Lint is composed of fibers, hairs, skin cells, dust, and other foreign particles. Pounds of lint and dust are removed annually, helping to restore the cave to a more natural state. Some areas of the cave, particularly those with stronger air currents, have lint resettle on them quickly and so have to be cleaned annually. Dust and lint that collect in dark areas support fungi, and occasionally Protozoans Stark One management option is to process visitors through a sort of vacuum pressure chamber at the cave entrance to collect loose particles, thereby reducing the amount transported into the cave.
Other possibilities could involve enlisting visitors to voluntarily modify their behavior and dress. As lint is only reported in touristic caves, comparison with non-show caves cannot be made. Year-long air temperature monitoring data in the Lehman Caves Nevada, USA was conducted to better understand cave micro-climate and impact of tourism and outside climate on the show cave. Hourly data of cave air temperature was collected at six sites in the period 7 August to 28 September Results show that the two monitoring sites off the tour route West Room sensor GBNP 2 and Talus Room display virtually constant air temperature year-round.
Air temperatures at sites along the tour route show an annual cycle with highs in summer and lows in winter. The reduction of winter air temperatures at sites on the tour route and relatively close to the entrance, from 0. In winter, daily oscillations are lower due to less visitation—less body heat and also less lighting because of fewer tours. Year-round monitoring showed that mean annual air temperature at the Lehman Caves is 1. The Little Muddy Cave, which is not a show cave and is only 0.
This difference points to an anthropogenic impact on the Lehman Caves atmosphere, perhaps exacerbated by excessive visitation in previous years especially in the period — with , visitors but also due to the current visitation when a residual temperature shift remains. Anthropomorphic temperature elevation in the cave comes from inefficiencies in converting energy.