The Chemistry of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes - Volume 2 (Fourth Edition)

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The DPPH-radical-scavenging activity of the essential oils and the methanolic extracts are shown in Table 3. Lower IC50 value indicates higher antioxidant activity. Among total essential oils and methanol extracts, polar subfraction of methanol extract of T. In the free-radical-scavenging activity, superiority of the polar subfraction of methanol extracts could be attributed to more amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds [8].

The previous studies show that a few Thymus species could be proposed as very interesting natural resources with antioxidant activity such as T.

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Based on the results of this study T. The results of essential oils, methanol extract samples and BHT antioxidant activity are presented in Table 3. Both the essential oils and methanol extracts obtained from Thymus species prevented the bleaching fi-carotene. The antioxidant activity may be due to different mechanisms, such as prevention of chain initiation, decomposition of peroxides, prevention of continued hydrogen abstraction, free-radical scavenging, reducing capacity, and binding of transition metal ion catalysts [32].

Compared to reported essential oil compositions of different Thymus species, investigations on their biological activities are still scarce, because the area of investigation on biological activities of different Thymus species is very abundant. Assays for Total Phenolics and Flavonoids. Based on the absorbance values of the methanolic extracts, reacting with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and compared with the standard solutions of gallic acid equivalents, as described above, results of the colorimetric analysis of total phenolics are given in Table 4. The amount of total phenolics in the polar extracts of T.

The total flavonoid contents obtained from methanol extracts of Thymus species were ranked as follows: polar. Thymus species are well known as aromatic and medicinal plants because of their biological and pharmacological properties. The antioxidant activity of basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils has been evaluated in a series of in vitro tests [15]. The oils of the three investigated species are rich in monoterpene phenols especially, thymol and carvacrol and due to this high phenol content, they can be considered as substitutes for Thymus vulgaris common thyme oil for medicinal purposes and other applications.

In the present study, in some cases, essential oils and methanol extracts showed similar or near to similar antioxidant activities compared to the standard BHT. Nowadays, there is great worldwide interest in finding new and safe antioxidants from natural sources to prevent oxidative deterioration of foods and to minimise oxidative damage of living cells.

Within Lamiaceae species examples of new antioxidants include: phenolic diterpenes, phenolic carboxylic acids, biphenyls, and flavonoids extracted from rosemary, sage, oregano, and thyme [34]. Rasooli and S. Mirmostafa, "Bacterial susceptibility to and chemical composition of essential oils from Thymus kotschyanus and Thymus persicus," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. Morteza-Semnani, B. Rostami, and M. Akbarzadeh, "Essential oil composition of thymus kotschyanus and thymus pubescens from Iran," Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol.

Sefidkon, M.

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Dabiri, and A. Rahimi-Bidgoly, "The effect of distillation methods and stage of plant growth on the essential oil content and composition of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. Rustaiyan, S. Masoudi, A. Monfared et al.

The Chemistry of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes II

Nickavar, F. Mojab, and R. Mericli, "Volatile oils of Thymus kotschyanus var. Kalvandi, F.

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Atri, and M. Sfaei-Ghomi, M.

Meshkatalsadat, S. Shamai, M. Hasheminejad, and A. Hassani, "Chemical characterization of bioactive volatile molecules of four thymus species using nanoscale injection method," Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, vol. Sajjadi and M. Khatamsaz, "Composition of the essential oil of Thymus daenensis Celak. Jalas," Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol. Hashemi, M. Abolghasemi, H. Hassanvand, and S. Ahmadi, "Headspace solvent microextraction of volatile components of Thymus daenensis" Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol.

Barazandeh and K.

The Chemistry of Essential Oils made simple SET by David Stewart (Book and DVDs)

At first, glass was seen as somewhat of a luxury, and thus its use focused around perfume, cosmetics and toiletries. Search inside document. Ambreine OH earthy, animal, fecal brinylozone-like tobacco-like briny Ambergris Scheme 4. Perfume has become an intrinsic part of our lives; it may wake us up, sooth and comfort us. Cohn concludes that with benzenoid bodies " side chains " only impart odour when they occupy the ortho or para positions relatively to one another, and he further states that the 1. The net result is an increase in esters in the total essential oil distilled from the whole of the plant, owing to the development of the green parts. Previous Figure Next Figure.

Bagherzadeh, "Investigation on the chemical composition of the essential of Thymus daenensis celak from four different regions of Isfahan Province," Journal ofMedicinal Plants, vol. Halliwell and J. Halliwell, "Antioxidants and human disease: a general introduction," Nutrition Reviews, vol.

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Sanchez-Rabaneda, W. Dieckmann, A. Plescher, I.

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Gartzia, and D. Jimenez, "An industrial approach in the search of natural antioxidants from vegetable and fruits wastes," Food Chemistry, vol. Bozin, N. Mimica-Dukic, N. Simin, and G. Anackov, "Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.

Vagionas, O. Ngassapa, D. Runyoro, K.

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Graikou, O. Gortzi, and I. Chinou, "Chemical analysis of edible aromatic plants growing in Tanzania," Food Chemistry, vol. Wei and T. Shibamoto, "Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. Slinkard and V. Singleton, "Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with maual methods," American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, vol.

Bauer, H. Garbe, and H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Hwang et al. Sarikurkcu, M. Sabih Ozer, M. Eskici, B.

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Tepe, S. Can, and E. Mete, "Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. Sokmen, B. Jones, and M. Erturk, "The in vitro antibacterial activity of Turkish medicinal plants," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. Van Den Dool and P. Kratz, "A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas—liquid partition chromatography," Journal of Chromatography A, vol.